Tafseer E Kabeer: A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran by Imam Razi
Tafseer E Kabeer (The Great Commentary) is one of the most famous and influential works of classical Islamic scholarship on the interpretation of the Quran. It was written by Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149-1209), a renowned theologian, philosopher and jurist of the Shafi’i school of law. Tafseer E Kabeer is a voluminous work that covers various aspects of Quranic exegesis, such as linguistic, rhetorical, theological, philosophical, historical and scientific analysis. It also addresses many controversial issues and debates among different schools of thought and sects within Islam.
Tafseer E Kabeer is available in Arabic and has been translated into several languages, including Urdu. The Urdu translation was done by Maulana Syed Muhammad Naeemuddin Muradabadi (1865-1948), a prominent scholar and leader of the Ahl-e-Hadith movement in India. The Urdu translation consists of 32 volumes and can be accessed online or downloaded in PDF format from various websites, such as Archive.org and Australian Islamic Library. The Urdu translation is also available in print form from various publishers and bookstores.
Tafseer E Kabeer is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to study the Quran in depth and gain insight into its meanings, implications and applications. It is also a testament to the intellectual legacy and contribution of Imam Razi, who was one of the most prolific and original thinkers in Islamic history.
Imam Razi was born in Rayy, a city in Persia (now Iran), around the year 854 CE. He came from a family of scholars and learned various Islamic sciences from his father and other teachers. He was especially interested in philosophy and alchemy, and studied the works of Greek and Muslim thinkers. He also traveled to different regions and cities, such as Baghdad, Khwarezm, Herat and Marv, where he engaged in debates and discussions with other scholars and rulers. He died in his hometown of Rayy in 925 or 935 CE.
Imam Razi was a prolific writer who authored more than 200 books and treatises on various subjects, such as medicine, philosophy, theology, logic, astronomy, grammar and ethics. He was known for his critical and independent approach to knowledge and his willingness to challenge the views of his predecessors and contemporaries. He also used rational arguments and empirical observations to support his claims and opinions. He was respected by many as a great scholar and thinker, but also faced opposition and criticism from some who accused him of heresy and deviation.
Imam Razi’s works and contributions spanned various fields of knowledge, but he was especially renowned for his achievements in medicine and philosophy. He wrote several books on medicine, such as Al-Mansuri, Al-Hawi, Al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles), Al-Muluki (On Royal Medicine), and Kitab al-Tibb al-Ruhani (The Spiritual Physick). He was one of the first to use experimental methods in medicine and to base his diagnoses and treatments on empirical evidence and rational analysis. He also made original discoveries and observations on various diseases, such as smallpox, measles, kidney stones, diabetes, and cancer. He was an expert in anatomy, surgery, pharmacology, and ophthalmology. He was the first to describe the reaction of the pupil to light and to use animal gut for sutures. He also invented several instruments for medical purposes, such as a device for removing foreign bodies from the throat.
Imam Razi’s philosophical works include Al-Mabahith al-Mashriqiyya (The Eastern Investigations), Al-Matalib al-Aliya (The Noble Inquiries), Al-Muhassal (The Summary), and Al-Arba’in fi Usul al-Din (The Forty Principles of Religion). He was influenced by various Greek and Muslim philosophers, such as Plato, Aristotle, Democritus, Avicenna, al-Ghazali, and al-Ash’ari. He was also critical of some of their views and arguments, and developed his own system of thought that combined rationalism and empiricism with theology and mysticism. He defended the Ash’ari doctrine of occasionalism against the Avicennan theory of natural causation. He also argued for the existence of God based on the contingency of the world and the design argument. He rejected the concept of prophethood and revelation as irrational and unnecessary. He also proposed a theory of five eternal principles: God, soul, matter, time, and space.